“This achievement is all the more remarkable given the tiny numbers of Quakers. In 1851 they only accounted for about one in 1,400 of the population of 21 million in England, Scotland and Wales - less than 0.1%”.
“The move into chocolate began with cocoa drinks in the 19th Century as a reaction against the perceived misery and deprivation caused by alcohol… Quakers and other non-conformists at the time were concerned about levels of alcohol misuse in the population at large, they were part of the temperance movement…Cocoa was a way of providing cheap and available drink. It was healthy because you had to boil the water to make it when they didn't have good water supplies."...
“In the 18th Century Quaker merchants and apothecaries began to get involved in the chocolate industry. At this time chocolate was used to make cocoa: there was nothing like today’s chocolates. Cocoa was thought to have medicinal properties and to be a good alternative to alcohol. Chocolate was [deemed to be] an ‘innocent trade’.
Joseph Fry (1728 – 1787)
John Cadbury (1801 - 1880)
Joseph Rowntree (1836 – 1925)
“Cadbury Brothers was the first firm to introduce the Saturday half-day holiday, and also pioneered in closing the factory on bank holidays. In 1918, Cadbury Brothers established democratically elected Works Councils, one for men and one for women. Departments elected representatives to these Councils by secret ballot. The Councils dealt with working conditions, health, safety, education, training, and the social life of the workers.”
Quakers do not celebrate Christmas and Easter as religious festivals, prefering to carry the principles and messages throughout the year and to distance themselves from the associated Pagan elements. For the same reasons their dating system is a little different too. Days of the week are number 1-7, with Sunday being the first day of the week. The months follow similar suit being numbered rather than named. This is all pretty straight forward, but extra care should be taken in years before 1752. In 1752, Britain formally adopted the use of the ‘Gregorian’ calendar, and the New Year now started on January 1st, with January becoming the first month. Prior to this according to the Julian calendar the New Year fell on 25th March or Lady Day. Thus a birth, marriage or death recorded in Januar,y entered Quaker records prior to this date may well appear as month no 11, with what we would now recognise as the previous years date. For example 1.11.1720, may actually be 1.1.1721.
John Smith, born 1st December 1740 and died 1st February 1740 may well be the same child who passed away at 2 months of age. Please take extra care, especially between the dates 1st January and 25th March in any year before 1752.
“Chocolate Service – On Sunday afternoon the children’s service at the Parish Church took the nature of a chocolate service. The children were invited to bring packets of chocolate, which would be sent to the soldiers who had left the parish [Glendale]. As a result, over £3 worth of chocolate was received, which will allow of a parcel being sent as a Christmas gift to each soldier.”
University of Leeds, Special Collections recomeded by 'Family Tree' Magasine
BBC Magazine http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/8467833.stm